Accepted for Publication: April 4, 2014.
Published Online: October 29, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1674.
Study concept and design: Arterburn, Polsky, Butler, Donahoo, Bayliss.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Arterburn, Portz, Bayliss.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Arterburn, Powers, Toh, Polsky, Butler, Donahoo, Herrinton, Williams, Vijayadeva, Fisher, Bayliss.
Statistical analysis: Powers, Toh, Butler.
Obtained funding: Bayliss.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Arterburn, Polsky, Butler, Portz, Donahoo, Herrinton, Williams.
Study supervision: Arterburn, Herrinton, Vijayadeva, Bayliss.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Herrinton reported receiving funding from Centocor, Procter & Gamble, Genentech, and Medimmune. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by grant 1R01HS019912 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Additional Contributions: Programmers/analysts from the following SPAN sites provided data for this project: Denver Health and Hospital Authority (DHHA), Essentia Institute of Rural Health (EIRH), Geisinger Health System (GHS), Group Health Research Institute (GHRI), Harvard Pilgrim Healthcare (HPHC), HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research (HPIER), Kaiser Permanente Hawaii (KPHI), Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), and Kaiser Permanente Georgia (KPGA). We are indebted to the following SPAN investigators for the collaborations that made this study possible: KPCO (Matthew F. Daley, MD; Ella Lyons, MS; Marsha A. Raebel, PharmD; Lisa Pieper, MSHA, MBA), KPNC (Ameena T. Ahmed, MD, MPH), EIRH (Thomas E. Elliott, MD); GHS (Jove Graham, PhD; Christopher Still, DO; Craig Wood, MS), GHRI (Denise Boudreau, PhD, RPh); HPIER (Pamela Pawloski, PharmD); KPHI (Cynthia Nakasato, MD), DHHA (Art Davidson, MD); and KPNW (Lynn DeBar, PhD, MPH; Kristine Funk, MS, RD). All individuals listed received support from grant 1R01HS019912 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for this project. Michael Shainline, MS, provided technical and administrative assistance.