Accepted for Publication: June 23, 2014.
Published Online: December 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1841.
Study concept and design: Kim, Khavanin, Rambachan, Mlodinow, De Oliveria, Gust, Mahvi.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kim, Khavanin, Rambachan, McCarthy, Mlodinow, De Oliveria, Stock.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kim, Khavanin, Rambachan, Mlodinow, De Oliveria, Stock, Gust.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Khavanin, Rambachan, McCarthy, Mlodinow, De Oliveria.
Administrative, technical, or material support: McCarthy¸ Mlodinow, Gust, Mahvi.
Study supervision: Kim, De Oliveria, Gust.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Contributions: Karl Bilimoria, MD, MS, Northwestern University, assisted with the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. There was no financial compensation.