Accepted for Publication: April 21, 2014.
Published Online: December 10, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.956.
Study concept and design: Hall, Ling, Arnold.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hall, Hanusa, Stone.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hall, Hanusa, Ling, Arnold.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hall, Hanusa, Stone, Ling.
Statistical analysis: Hall, Hanusa, Stone.
Obtained funding: Hall.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hanusa, Arnold.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grants CDA 08-281 and SDR 11-399-1 from the US Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Health Services Research and Development (Dr Hall).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Other than competitive peer review of the grant supporting grant proposals, the sponsor had no direct role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 6, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.
Additional Contributions: The authors would like to recognize the contributions of Marcia Homer, RN, and Laura Horowitz, JD, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, for their diligent efforts in coding the protocols. We also thank Ulrike Feske, PhD, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Charles Lidz, PhD, University of Massachusetts Medical School, and 2 anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript.