Published Online: December 23, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1239.
Study concept and design: Duquette, Nosrati, Tholpady.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Duquette, Nosrati, Tholpady.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Duquette, Nosrati, Tholpady.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nosrati, Cohen, Tholpady.
Study supervision: Nosrati, Cohen, Munshi, Tholpady.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 6, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.