Accepted for Publication: May 27, 2014.
Published Online: January 14, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2873.
Study concept and design: Reames, Dimick.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Reames, Krell, Campbell.
Drafting of the manuscript: Reames, Krell, Dimick.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Reames, Krell.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Campbell.
Study supervision: Dimick.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Dimick reports serving as consultant and having an equity interest in ArborMetrix Inc, which provided software and analytics for measuring hospital quality and efficiency. The company had no role in the study. Dr Campbell is program director for the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Reames is supported by grant 5T32CA009672-23 from the National Cancer Institute. Dr Dimick is supported by a grant from Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: Dr Dimick is the Surgical Innovation Editor for JAMA Surgery but was not involved in the editorial review or decision process.