Published Online: January 21, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1768.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Noll, Carson, Sampson, Hundahl, Clouse.
Drafting of the manuscript: Noll, Hundahl.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Noll.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Noll, Atkins, Carson, Sampson, Dawson, Clouse.
Study supervision: Noll, Atkins, Dawson, Hundahl, Clouse.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 6, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.