Accepted for Publication: June 3, 2014.
Published Online: January 21, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2239.
Study concept and design: Hakkarainen, Dellinger, Helton, Horton, Pietro, Varghese, Flum.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hakkarainen, Steele, Bastaworous, Farrokhi, Farjah, Florence, Helton.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hakkarainen, Flum.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Hakkarainen.
Obtained funding: Flum.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Farrokhi, Farjah, Florence, Varghese, Flum.
Study supervision: Steele, Dellinger, Farjah, Horton, Varghese, Flum.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 1 R01 HS 20025-01 from the Comparative Effective Research Translation Network, an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality–funded initiative; by the generous support of the Washington State Life Science Discovery Fund; and by training grant 1T32DK070555-01A1 from the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Information: The authors represent the writing group for the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP), a program of the Foundation for Health Care Quality and the Clinical Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN). More information is available at http://www.scoap.org and http://www.becertain.org.
Correction: This article was corrected on April 10, 2015, to fix the number of patients in Table 3’s title.