Published Online: January 28, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1837.
Study concept and design: Shapiro, Huang, Gold.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shapiro, Rashid, Huang, Gold.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Shapiro, Galper, Boosalis, Whang, Gold.
Statistical analysis: Shapiro, Rashid, Gold.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Huang, Gold.
Study supervision: Galper, Whang, Gold.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work is supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development through a Career Development Award 2 (Dr Gold).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This paper was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 7, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.
Additional Contributions: We thank Charles H. Yoon, MD, PhD, at the Department of Surgery of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School and Mandeep S. Saund, MD, at the Department of Surgery of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, and Harvard Medical School for their advice on and contributions to this work. There was no compensation awarded to these additional contributors.