Accepted for Publication: August 19, 2014.
Published Online: February 4, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.3579.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Risstad, Søvik, Aasheim, Fagerland, Fagevik Olsén, Kristinsson, le Roux, Bøhmer, Birkeland, Mala, Olbers.
Drafting of the manuscript: Risstad.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Risstad, Fagerland.
Obtained funding: Risstad, Aasheim, Kristinsson, Bøhmer, Mala, Olbers.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Risstad, Søvik, Engström, Aasheim, Fagevik Olsén, Bøhmer, Birkeland, Mala.
Study supervision: Kristinsson, le Roux, Mala, Olbers.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Aasheim has received grants from the University of Oslo and South Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority for biochemical analysis of vitamin concentrations. Drs Kristinsson and Mala receive travel reimbursements from Johnson and Johnson and Covidien. Dr le Roux is funded by grant 12/YI/B2480 from the Science Foundation Ireland. Dr Birkeland has served as a consultant for and has received lecture fees or travel reimbursements from Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, Sanofi, Merck, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Novartis, and Pfizer. Dr Olbers serves on the advisory board and receives lecture fees and travel reimbursements from Johnson and Johnson. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The present study was supported by a research fellowship from the South Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority (Drs Risstad, Søvik, and Aasheim), Oslo University Hospital, and a postdoctoral research grant from Sahlgrenska University Hospital (Dr Olbers). The use of the Short Form 36 questionnaires was permitted by the payment of license fees (license number QM017638).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Hans Lönroth, MD, PhD, and Almantas Maleckas, MD, PhD, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, and Carl Fredrik Schou, MD, Oslo University Hospital, for providing surgical expertise; Kari Julien, MLT, Hormone Laboratory, Oslo University Hospital, for help with hormone analysis; Anne Hove, MLT, and Merete Berge Pettersen, MLT, Nutritional Laboratory, Biochemical Department, Oslo University Hospital, for help with vitamin analyses; and Niclas Björnfot, RN, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, for data collection. None of these individuals received financial compensation for their contributions.