Accepted for Publication: June 19, 2014.
Published Online: February 11, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1700.
Study concept and design: Cornwell, Rosengart, Holman, Bakaeen.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Cornwell, Omer, Holman, Bakaeen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Cornwell, Rosengart.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Cornwell, Omer.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Cornwell, Rosengart, Holman.
Study supervision: Cornwell, Rosengart, Bakaeen.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Previous Presentation: This research was presented at the 38th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of Veterans Affairs Surgeons; April 6, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.
Additional Contributions: Virginia C. Fairchild, BA, and Stephen N. Palmer, PhD, Texas Heart Institute Department of Scientific Publications, contributed to the editing of the manuscript. There was no financial compensation.