Accepted for Publication: July 3, 2014.
Published Online: February 18, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1819.
Study concept and design: Schwarze, Barnato, Dodgion, Kwok, Greenberg.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Barnato, Rathouz, Zhao, Neuman, Winslow, Kennedy, Hu, Greenberg.
Drafting of the manuscript: Schwarze, Rathouz.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Barnato, Rathouz, Zhao, Neuman, Winslow, Kennedy, Hu, Dodgion, Kwok, Greenberg.
Statistical analysis: Schwarze, Rathouz, Zhao, Hu, Greenberg.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Schwarze, Barnato, Dodgion, Greenberg.
Study supervision: Barnato, Greenberg.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The project described was supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program, previously through grant 1UL1RR025011 from the National Center for Research Resources and now by grant 9U54TR0000427 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. Dr Schwarze receives funding from the Greenwall Faculty Scholars Program. Dr Barnato receives funding by grant R01AG035112 from the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The authors conducted the analysis under a data use agreement with the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4). The following statement is provided and required by the PHC4: PHC4 has provided this data in an effort to further PHC4’s mission of educating the public and containing health care costs in Pennsylvania. PHC4, its agents and staff, have made no representation, guarantee, or warranty, expressed or implied, that the data—financial, patient, payor and physician specific information—are error-free, or that the use of the data will avoid differences of opinion or interpretation, or disputes with those who use published reports or purchased data. PHC4, its agents and staff, will bear no responsibility or liability for the results of the analysis, or consequences of its use.
Additional Contributions: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Data Partners contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the state organizations involved (http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/hcupdatapartners.jsp).