To evaluate perioperative and long-term morbidity in patients undergoing selective evaluation of coronary artery disease prior to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.
University and Veterans' Administration medical centers.
One hundred eighty-nine consecutive patients undergoing AAA repair between January 1989 and September 1996 were selectively evaluated for coronary artery disease and assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group 1, no abnormal cardiac history, normal electrocardiogram; group 2, minimal symptoms, history of myocardial infarction (MI), older than 70 years, diabetes mellitus, or congestive heart failure; or group 3, severe or unstable angina, ventricular dysfunction.
Group 1 patients proceeded to AAA repair without further workup. Group 2 patients underwent pharmacologic or exercise stress testing followed by coronary angiography and intervention as required. Group 3 patients went directly to coronary angiography and intervention as needed.
Main Outcome Measures
Perioperative MI, arrhythmias, or death. Long-term follow-up measures included MI and death.
Adequate documentation was available on 171 patients. Twenty-four patients (14%) were in group 1. Of 136 patients (79.5%) in group 2, coronary angiography was performed in 36 (26%), followed by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in 9 (7%) and coronary artery bypass (CAB) in 5 (4%). Of 11 patients in group 3, 3 (27%) each received PTCA and CAB. Remote CAB or PTCA had been performed in 32 (19%) and 12 (7%) patients, respectively. Two perioperative deaths (1.1%) occurred in the 189 patients, one due to MI in a group 2 patient. There were 2 (1%) nonfatal MIs, both in group 2 patients who had no preoperative intervention. Arrhythmias and/or congestive heart failure occurred in 17 (9%) cases, 7 (39%) having had recent coronary revascularization (P=.001). By univariate analysis, only preoperative renal dysfunction predicted perioperative complications (P=.03) Overall survival by life-table analysis was 87.9% and 69.7% at 3 and 5 years, respectively.
Coronary artery disease is common in patients undergoing AAA repair, with 35.7% having preoperative coronary revascularization at some point. Selective preoperative coronary artery disease screening achieves excellent perioperative and late results in this population.