To investigate the immediate effects of intermittent pneumatic foot and calf compression (IPFCC) on popliteal artery blood flow in symptom-free volunteers and to determine the reproducibility of color flow duplex imaging in the popliteal artery.
A university associated tertiary care hospital.
Forty lower limbs of 30 volunteers without symptoms or noteworthy risk factors of peripheral vascular disease.
Popliteal artery blood flow was measured in the sitting position before, during, and after the application of IPFCC using color flow duplex imaging. The interobserver, intraobserver, and between occasion within-subject variability of the popliteal artery blood flow were evaluated in 5 symptom-free volunteers who had at least 5 color flow duplex imaging measurements taken at each of the above time points on 3 different days.
Main Outcome Measures
The arterial diameter, peak systolic, end diastolic, and reverse-flow velocities were measured, as well as the duration of forward flow during diastole before, during, and after IPFCC. The same variables were measured in 5 separate volunteers by 3 different observers, on 3 separate days, at 3 separate times to determine reproducibility.
Including all types of variability, the popliteal artery blood flow varied from 8% to 39% with a mean value of 19%. Since the diameter of the artery was obtained with less than 5% variability, the time average mean velocity was responsible for the high variation in flow. During application of the IPFCC, the popliteal artery blood flow increased significantly in all subjects (P<.001). The mean increase in the flow was 2.4 times the baseline values. The diameter of the arteries remained unchanged while the time average velocity increased significantly (P<.001). This velocity increase was due to marked elevation in the peak systolic and end diastolic velocities and diminution of the reverse-flow component, as well as a prolongation of the forward flow during diastole. After cessation of the pump, flow returned to baseline levels (P=.41)
Ultrasound-derived popliteal artery blood flow measurements show moderate variability. The application of IPFCC greatly enhances popliteal artery blood flow. The flow increase is due to a dramatic drop in the peripheral vascular resistance as the peak systolic and end diastolic flow velocities increase and the reverse-flow component diminishes. Its role in the treatment of lower extremity occlusive arterial disease needs to be determined.