The A. C. Camargo Cancer Hospital (Hospital do Câncer A. C. Camargo) and the Ludwig Institute, with their research on the genome, are internationally prominent. There are numerous surgical societies. Among them, the most prominent is the Brazilian College of Surgeons (Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões [CBC]), a national public utility entity, founded on July 30, 1929, with more than 2000 full members and approximately 3000 associate members. The seat of the CBC is in Rio de Janeiro. It consists of a central nucleus and state chapters. The CBC has several committees (trauma, videosurgery, hospital accreditation, nosocomial infection, cancer, organ transplantation, and training in surgery), it regularly organizes regional updating and refresher courses, and it promotes a national congress every 2 years that lasts 6 days and has more than 3000 participants. The CBC issues the title of specialist in general surgery and, since 1974, publishes a bimonthly journal (Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões) and a trimestrial information bulletin. To be a member of the CBC, in any category, the candidate must fulfill a series of requirements according to the statutes. Further information may be found on the CBC's home page.10 Brazilian medicine has prominent surgeons among its emeritus members. It would be impossible to name them all, and we would definitely leave out illustrious names. However, there are some who, because of their work, deserve at least one citation. Fernando Paulino, MD, and José Hilário, MD, from Rio de Janeiro; Benedito Montenegro, MD, Alípio Correa Neto, MD, and Edmundo Vasconcelos, MD, from São Paulo; Eurico da Silva Bastos, MD, from Pernambuco; Fernando Carvalho Luz, MD, from Bahia; and João Batista Rezende Alves, MD, from Minas Gerais, are examples of masters who left an indelible mark on Brazilian surgery. Euryclides Zerbini, MD, in thoracic surgery, and Waldemar de Carvalho Pinto, MD, in orthopedics, are other noteworthy examples of surgeons with a great impact on medical education and professional practice.