Planned relaparotomy (PRL) has been suggested to have detrimental effects on the systemic activation of inflammation mediators, thereby enhancing organ dysfunctions as assessed by clinical scores in secondary peritonitis.
Prospective, nonrandomized control trial.
Intensive care units of an urban and a university teaching hospital.
Twenty-nine patients with secondary peritonitis.
Of the 29 patients with comparable initial peritonitis conditions, 11 underwent PRL and 18 obtained primary abdominal closure. Blood samples were obtained preoperatively and at 2, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, and 48 hours after the primary operation, then every 12th hour until day 5 and once daily until day 8.
Main Outcome Measures
Quantification of circulating inflammation parameters (coagulation, acute-phase proteins, cytokine system, cell adhesion, opsonization) in correlation with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, multiple organ failure, and Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment scores.
Preoperatively, the patient groups did not differ in mean age, cause of peritonitis, or clinical scores. On average, 5.1 (SEM, ± 0.7; range, 3-11) lavage treatments were performed in the PRL group, with 90% of the procedures executed during the first 6 days. The PRL treatment resulted in a significantly higher need of blood components and an increased inflammation mediator response, especially concerning coagulation factors, proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, and opsonic parameters. During PRL, clinical score systems showed higher values and a delayed decline compared with primary abdominal closure treatment. Incidence of multiorgan failure, mortality, and the mean intensive care unit hospitalization period were clearly more pronounced in the PRL group.
In our pilot study, additional lavage treatment of secondary peritonitis resulted in an enhancement of systemic inflammatory mediator response (in particular interleukin 8), which may contribute to a further impairment of organ function.