Accepted for Publication: July 14, 2014.
Published Online: February 25, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2257.
Study concept and design: King, Perkal, Rosenthal, Gordon, Crystal, Rodriguez-Barradas, Gibert, Rimland, Justice.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: King, Rodriguez-Barradas, Butt, Rimland, Simberkoff, Justice.
Drafting of the manuscript: King, Gordon, Crystal, Gibert.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: King, Crystal, Justice.
Obtained funding: Justice.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Rimland, Simberkoff, Justice.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U10-AA13566), National Institute on Aging (R01-AG029154), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01-HL095136; R01-HL090342; RCI-HL100347), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (U01-A1069918), National Institute of Mental Health (P30-MH062294), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (U19-HS-021112), and the Veterans Health Administration Office of Research and Development (VA REA 8-266) and Office of Academic Affiliations (Medical Informatics Fellowship).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 30th Annual Surgical Symposium of the Association of VA Surgeons; April 8, 2014; New Haven, Connecticut.
Additional Contributions: Melissa Skanderson, MSW, and Janet P. Tate, ScD, MPH, accessed and compiled data from databases. They were supported by one or more of the grants listed earlier.