Accepted for Publication: August 27, 2014.
Published Online: March 18, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.3160.
Study concept and design: Won, Tangel, Matsushima, Pichardo-Lowden, Soybel.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Won, Lehman, Geletzke, Tangel, Brunke-Reese, Pichardo-Lowden, Pauli, Soybel.
Drafting of the manuscript: Won, Lehman, Geletzke, Soybel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Won, Geletzke, Tangel, Matsushima, Brunke-Reese, Pichardo-Lowden, Pauli, Soybel.
Statistical analysis: Won, Lehman.
Obtained funding: Soybel.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Geletzke, Tangel, Brunke-Reese, Pichardo-Lowden, Pauli, Soybel.
Study supervision: Matsushima, Pichardo-Lowden, Pauli, Soybel.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Department of Surgery Academic and Education Fund, Penn State Hershey College of Medicine, and the David L. Nahrwold Endowment.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.