Accepted for Publication: August 29, 2014.
Published Online: March 18, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.4038.
Study concept and design: Haider, Schneider, Swoboda, Losonczy, Haut, Efron, Pronovost, Lipsett, Cornwell, MacKenzie, Cooper, Freischlag.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Haider, Schneider, Sriram, Dossick, Scott, Swoboda, Losonczy, Lipsett, MacKenzie.
Drafting of the manuscript: Haider, Schneider, Dossick, Scott.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Haider, Schneider, Sriram, Swoboda, Losonczy, Haut, Efron, Pronovost, Lipsett , Cornwell, MacKenzie, Cooper, Freischlag.
Statistical analysis: Haider, Schneider, Sriram, Dossick, Losonczy, Pronovost, MacKenzie.
Obtained funding: Haider, MacKenzie.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Haider, Scott, Swoboda, Losonczy, Pronovost, Lipsett, Cornwell, Cooper, Freischlag.
Study supervision: Haider, Swoboda, Efron, Pronovost, Lipsett, Cornwell.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant K23GM093112-01 from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Dr Haider), by the American College of Surgeons C. James Carrico fellowship for the study of trauma and critical care (Dr Haider), and by grant K24 HL83113 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Dr Cooper).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: Dr Freischlag was the editor of JAMA Surgery when this article was accepted for publication but was not involved in the editorial review or decision process.
Additional Contributions: Cheryl K. Zogg, MSPH, MHS, Center for Surgery and Public Health, Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Public Health, and Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, assisted with manuscript preparation, content, and editing in addition to her handling of manuscript revisions. She received no compensation for this role.