Published Online: March 25, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.4052.
Study concept and design: Xu, Hutfless, Cooper, Massie, Makary.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Xu, Hutfless, Zhou, Massie.
Drafting of the manuscript: Xu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Xu, Hutfless, Zhou, Makary.
Study supervision: Hutfless, Cooper, Massie, Makary.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Makary reports receipt of royalties from Bloomsbury Press for publication of a book on medical transparency. No other disclosures are reported.
Additional Contributions: We thank Jiangxia Wang, research associate at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, for her assistance in statistical analysis. She was not compensated.