Accepted for Publication: September 30, 2014.
Published Online: March 25, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.3848.
Study concept and design: Kim, Kwok, Ciobanu, Merry, Funk, Lipsitz, Gawande, Berry.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Kim, Kwakye, Baltaga, Ciobanu, Lipsitz, Gawande, Berry, Haynes.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kim, Kwakye, Ciobanu, Lipsitz, Berry, Haynes.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kwakye, Kwok, Baltaga, Merry, Funk, Lipsitz, Gawande, Berry, Haynes.
Statistical analysis: Kim, Kwakye, Lipsitz, Haynes.
Obtained funding: Gawande.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kim, Baltaga, Ciobanu, Funk, Berry, Haynes.
Study supervision: Ciobanu, Gawande, Berry, Haynes.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Gawande is on the board of Lifebox, a nonprofit organization that aims to provide pulse oximetry to operating rooms around the world that do not have them. He also receives royalties from publishers for books and essays on improvement of health care systems, including a book on the use of health care checklists. No other disclosures are reported.
Additional Information: Dr Baltaga was the principal investigator in Moldova.