Accepted for Publication: November 25, 2014.
Published Online: April 15, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.28.
Study concept and design: Hicks, Efron, Gearhart, Safar, Fang.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hicks, Wick, Leeds, Fang.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hicks, Gearhart, Fang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hicks, Wick, Leeds, Efron, Safar, Fang.
Statistical analysis: Hicks.
Obtained funding: Fang.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hicks, Wick, Efron, Fang.
Study supervision: Fang.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This project was completed with funding from the State of Maryland, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Cigarette Restitution Fund Cancer Research Grant.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.