Accepted for Publication: October 31, 2014.
Published Online: April 22, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.4043.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Tevis, Weber, Kent.
Drafting of the manuscript: Tevis, Weber, Kennedy.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Tevis.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Study supervision: Weber, Kent, Kennedy.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by T32 training grant CA090217 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr Tevis), the Clinical and Translational Science Award program grant UL1TR000427 through the National Institutes of Health National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (Dr Weber), and the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health’s Wisconsin Partnership Program.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or the Wisconsin Partnership Program.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 2014 Academic Surgical Congress; February 4, 2014; San Diego, California.
Additional Contributions: Glen Leverson, PhD, and Chee Paul Lin, PhD, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, provided statistical advice for this study. They were not financially compensated.