Accepted for Publication: August 4, 2014.
Published Online: May 6, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2464.
Study concept and design: Osler, Glance, Li, Hosmer.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Osler, Li, Buzas.
Drafting of the manuscript: Osler, Glance, Li, Hosmer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Osler, Glance, Li, Buzas.
Statistical analysis: All authors.
Administrative, technical or material support: Osler, Li.
Study supervision: Osler.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant R01MD006231 from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: The Stata Inpatient Datasets (for Massachusetts and New York) were provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.