Accepted for Publication: November 24, 2014.
Published Online: May 13, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.3871.
Study concept and design: Hicks, Freischlag, Malas.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hicks, Wick, Canner, Black, Arhuidese, Qazi, Obeid, Freischlag.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hicks, Arhuidese, Qazi, Freischlag.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wick, Canner, Black, Obeid, Freischlag, Malas.
Statistical analysis: Hicks, Arhuidese, Obeid.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hicks, Black, Qazi, Freischlag, Malas.
Study supervision: Wick, Freischlag, Malas.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Disclaimer: Dr Freischlag was the Editor of JAMA Surgery when this article was submitted, but was not involved in the editorial review or decision to accept the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented as a podium presentation at the American College of Surgeons 2014 Clinical Congress; October 28, 2014; San Francisco, California.