Accepted for Publication: December 1, 2014.
Published Online: May 13, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.91.
Study concept and design: H. B. Moore, Hammermeister, Henderson, Meguid.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: H. B. Moore, Juarez-Colunga, Hammermeister, E. E. Moore, Meguid.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Juarez-Colunga, Bronsert, Henderson, Meguid.
Obtained funding: Meguid.
Administrative, technical, or material support: E. E. Moore, Meguid.
Study supervision: Hammermeister, Henderson, E. E. Moore, Meguid.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by funding from the Department of Surgery, Adult and Child Center for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science Joint Surgical Outcomes and Applied Research Program at the University of Colorado.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.