Accepted for Publication: December 22, 2014.
Published Online: May 27, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.0294.
Study concept and design: Huang, Russo.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Huang, Pinheiro, Russo.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Atoria, Bjurlin, Pinheiro, Elkin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Huang, Pinheiro.
Study supervision: Huang, Russo, Lowrance.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Disclaimer: The linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare database was used for this study. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the Applied Research Program (National Cancer Institute), Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Information Management Services Inc, and the SEER program tumor registries for their creation and maintenance of the linked SEER-Medicare dataset. Mithat Gonen, PhD (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center), provided advice regarding statistical methods; there was no financial compensation.