Accepted for Publication: February 28, 2015.
Published Online: June 10, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1057.
Study concept and design: Nelson, Simianu, Flum, Steele.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Nelson, Simianu, Flum, Steele.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nelson, Simianu, Steele.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bastawrous, Billingham, Fichera, Florence, E. K. Johnson, M. G. Johnson, Thirlby, Flum.
Statistical analysis: Nelson, Simianu, Flum.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Simianu, Flum.
Study supervision: Flum, Steele.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grant T32DK070555 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (Drs Simianu and Flum).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The SCOAP-CERTAIN contributed to data collection and data management and approved the final manuscript.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health and does not reflect the opinions or official policy of the US Army or the Department of Defense.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented at the 86th Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Surgical Association; February 20, 2015; Monterey, California.