Accepted for Publication: April 3, 2015.
Published Online: June 24, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1121.
Study concept and design: Sathya, Alali, Scales, Karanicolas, Burd, Nathens.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Sathya, Alali, Wales, Scales, Karanicolas, Nance, Xiong, Nathens.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sathya, Alali, Nathens.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Sathya, Alali, Xiong.
Obtained funding: Sathya, Nathens.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Sathya, Nathens.
Study supervision: Wales, Scales, Karanicolas, Nance, Nathens.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Nathens reported receiving support from the De Souza Chair in Trauma Research. Dr Sathya reported receiving support from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, approval of the manuscript; and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: Although the American College of Surgeons oversees the dataset used, the authors of this study are solely responsible for the study design, analysis, and conclusions presented here.
Previous Presentation: Preliminary results pertaining to this study were presented at the Scientific Session of the Annual Meeting of the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma; March 20, 2014; Chicago, Illinois; and at the Canadian Association of Pediatric Surgeons meeting; September 18, 2014; Montreal, Quebec, Canada.