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Original Investigation |

Long-term Metabolic Effects of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

Inbal Golomb, BSc1; Matan Ben David, MD2; Adi Glass, BSc1; Tamara Kolitz, MD3; Andrei Keidar, MD1,2
[+] Author Affiliations
1Bariatric Clinic, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva, Israel
2Department of Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva, Israel
3Department of Internal Medicine, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva, Israel
JAMA Surg. 2015;150(11):1051-1057. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.2202.
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Importance  The prevalence of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is increasing, but data on its long-term effect on obesity-related comorbidities are scarce. Because the population of bariatric patients is young, long-term results of those comorbidities are highly relevant.

Objective  To investigate the long-term effects of LSG on weight loss, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperuricemia.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Cohort study using a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort at a university hospital. Data were collected from all patients undergoing LSGs performed by the same team between April 1, 2006, and February 28, 2013, including demographic details, weight follow-up, blood test results, and information on medications and comorbidities.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Excess weight loss, obesity-related comorbidities, and partial and complete remission at 1, 3, and 5 years of follow-up.

Results  A total of 443 LSGs were performed. Complete data were available for 241 of the 443 patients (54.4%) at the 1-year follow-up, for 128 of 259 patients (49.4%) at the 3-year follow-up, and for 39 of 56 patients (69.6%) at the 5-year follow-up. The percentage of excess weight loss was 76.8%, 69.7%, and 56.1%, respectively. Complete remission of diabetes was maintained in 50.7%, 38.2%, and 20.0%, respectively, and remission of hypertension was maintained in 46.3%, 48.0%, and 45.5%, respectively. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (mean [SD] level preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 5 years, 46.7 [15.8], 52.8 [13.6], 56.8 [16.0], and 52.4 [13.8] mg/dL, respectively) and triglyceride level (mean [SD] level preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 5 years, 155.2 [86.1], 106.3 [45.3], 107.2 [53.4], and 126.4 [59.7] mg/dL, respectively) were significant compared with preoperative and postoperative measurements (P < .001). The decrease of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significant only at 1 year (P = .04) and 3 years (P = .04) (mean [SD] level preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 5 years, 115.8 [33.2], 110.8 [32.0], 105.7 [25.9], and 110.6 [28.3] mg/dL, respectively). The changes in total cholesterol level did not reach statistical significance (mean [SD] level preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 5 years, 189.5 [38.2], 184.0 [35.4], 183.4 [31.2], and 188.1 [35.7] mg/dL, respectively). No changes in comorbidity status correlated with preoperative excess weight. Hypertriglyceridemia was the only comorbidity whose remission rates at 1 year of follow-up (partial/complete, 80.6%; complete, 72.2%) correlated with percentage of excess weight loss (76.8%) (P = .005).

Conclusions and Relevance  Undergoing LSG induced efficient weight loss and a major improvement in obesity-related comorbidities, with mostly no correlation to percentage of excess weight loss. There was a significant weight regain and a decrease in remission rates of diabetes and, to a lesser extent, other comorbidities over time.

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