To evaluate complications and the oncological and intermediate-term functional results in patients with bone and soft tissue tumors of the shoulder girdle who were managed with interscapulothoracic resection (Tikhoff-Linberg procedure).
Case series of 19 consecutive patients during a 10-year period at a mean follow-up of 6.3 years (range, 1-11 years).
University hospital; referral center for musculoskeletal tumor surgery.
The initial diagnosis in this consecutive series of patients with shoulder girdle tumors requiring the Tikhoff-Linberg procedure was chondrosarcoma in 7 patients, Ewing sarcoma in 3 patients, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 3 patients, solitary metastasis of thyroid carcinoma in 2 patients, osteosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, angiosarcoma, and neurofibrosarcoma in 1 patient each. According to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society staging system, there were 6 in surgical stage IB, 10 in stage IIB, and 3 in stage III. Nine tumors involved the proximal humerus, 8 were located in the scapula or surrounding soft tissues, 1 in the lateral clavicle, and 1 in the acromioclavicular joint.
For reconstruction of the proximal humerus after en bloc tumor resection an isoelastic cemented shoulder tumor prosthesis was inserted in every patient to restore arm length.
Main Outcome Measures
Complications, and oncological and intermediate-term functional results.
Twelve patients were alive with no evidence of disease. One of these patients died of nontumorous disease 2 years after surgery. One patient is alive with pulmonary metastases after 12 months. Six patients died of metastases at a mean (SD) interval of 18 months (range, 3-35 months) postoperatively. Two of these patients had additional local recurrence. A deep infection necessitated the explantation of the prosthesis in 1 patient. The mean functional score and SD according to the rating system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society was 72%±14% (range, 33%-87%) for the 12 surviving patients evaluated. Major complications (1 infection and 2 local recurrences) that may be attributed to the procedure occurred in 3 of the 19 patients.
Despite an overall complication rate of 74% the Tikhoff-Linberg procedure proved to be a valuable surgical procedure for extended tumors of the shoulder girdle for functional and oncological outcome and is superior to forequarter amputation.