After completion of undergraduate training, graduates become doctors of medicine and those who wish to take a post for training in surgery or any other special field have to take another central examination in both medicine and foreign languages. The duration of surgical training in teaching hospitals or universities is 5 years. During this period residents are also on rotatation in the departments of gynecology, urology, orthopedic surgery, anesthesiology, cardiovascular surgery, and pathology. During the residency program they have ward responsibilities, work as second and first residents in the operating rooms, and may operate under the supervision of an attending surgeon. At the end of the training program they write a thesis and sit for both a theoretical and practical examination in front of a jury. Successful candidates become licensed by the Ministry of Health and can practice surgery independently. A surgeon who wants to continue with an academic career works as an attending surgeon for at least 4 years in a university clinic and may become an associate professor based on publications, a theoretical and practical examination by a jury, and a foreign language examination.