Health care in Saudi Arabia was provided by physicians from neighboring countries who had various backgrounds, levels of education, and training. Specialists were usually trained for 2 to 4 years. At that time, the financial resources of Saudi Arabia were not as vast as they are now. Currently, health care in Saudi Arabia is free for all citizens and residents. It covers emergency and elective care, including transplantations, dialysis, and cancer therapy. This is expensive and consumes much of the country's economic and human resources. The first Saudi Arabian physician graduated in 1956. In 1970, there were 789 physicians in Saudi Arabia,2 and in 1996, 15,484.