A pioneer in minimally invasive surgery has been Joseph Amaral, MD, Brown graduate, 1981, professor of surgery and now chief executive officer at RIH. At the Women and Infants Hospital, Blake Cady, MD, NESS president, 1995, returned to his origins and was appointed professor of surgery in 1997. Specialties have continued to grow. Richard Hopkins, MD, appointed professor and chair, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, in 1996, expanded the clinical and research programs and was recently appointed to the new position of Karlson Chair of Cardiothoracic Surgery. The program in pediatric surgery, initiated in the 1960s by Frank DeLuca, MD, and Conrad Wesselhoeft, MD, has flourished with the construction of the Hasbro Children's Hospital and the appointment of Thomas Tracy, MD, as professor and director of the division. Substantial progress has been made in other surgical specialties, including urology (with Barry Stein, MD, professor and chair, and Anthony Caldamone, MD, Brown graduate, 1975, professor and pediatric urologist), orthopedic surgery (Michael Ehrlich, MD, Zecchino professor and chair), and neurosurgery (Mel Epstein, MD, professor of clinical neurosciences [neurosurgery] and cochair of neurosciences).