Until the beginning of the war in 1975, Lebanon was referred to as the "hospital of the middle east." Lebanon received referrals from the region and cared for patients with all kinds of diseases and, specifically, endemic diseases of the region such as hydatid disease, lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract, cancer of the stomach and esophagus, and schistosomiasis. Zoonotic diseases are also endemic to the region. The rare form of human intestinal anthrax was discovered in Lebanon by one of us (A.G.), who reported 71 cases and provided a precise description of the disease, its epidemiology, and the role of surgery in its treatment.9 Lebanon also sees, with increasing frequency, diseases common in western societies, such as diverticulitis, colorectal cancer, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, and breast, lung, and prostate cancer. The lack of cancer and disease registries prevents us from presenting prevalence figures for different diseases; however, preliminary results obtained from a recently launched tumor registry show that the bladder, prostate, colon, lung, and breast are the leading sites of cancer.