William Stewart Halsted (1852-1922) is one of the most influential persons in the history of US surgery. His surgical career can be divided into the years in New York, NY (1880-1889), and the years in Baltimore, Md (1889-1922). In addition to the important growth and development of surgery that took place in the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s, an equally impressive growth in surgery took place in many other countries, in particular, in Western Europe. Although a small country, Sweden also saw a strong development of surgery between 1880 and 1920. In this article, some of the surgeons who were prominent in Sweden during this era (Karl Gustav Lennander in Uppsala; John Wilhelm Berg in Stockholm; and Jacques Borelius in Lund) and some of the surgical procedures that were introduced are described. In addition, a few nonsurgeons are discussed because their work significantly influenced surgery. Learning about some of the achievements in surgery during the late 1800s and early 1900s is not only educational but inspiring, and puts today's surgical practice and scientific achievements in an important historical perspective.