Corticosteroid use has a significant effect on morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Burn-trauma ICU in a level 1 trauma center.
All patients who received corticosteroids while in the ICU from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2003 (n = 100), matched by age and Injury Severity Score with a control group (n = 100).
Main Outcome Measures
We considered the following 7 outcomes: pneumonia, bloodstream infection, urinary tract infection, other infections, ICU length of stay (LOS), ventilator LOS, and mortality.
Cases and controls had similar APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) scores and medical history. In univariate analysis, the corticosteroid group had a significant increase in pneumonia (26% vs 12%; P<.01), bloodstream infection (19% vs 7%; P<.01), and urinary tract infection (17% vs 8%; P<.05). In multivariate models, corticosteroid use was associated with an increased rate of pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-5.75) and bloodstream infection (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.26-8.37). There was a trend toward increased urinary tract infection (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 0.94-5.69), other infections (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 0.87-7.67), and mortality (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.81-4.40). Patients in the ICU who received corticosteroids had a longer ICU LOS by 7 days (P<.01) and longer ventilator LOS by 5 days (P<.01).
Corticosteroid use is associated with increased rate of infection, increased ICU and ventilator LOS, and a trend toward increased mortality. Caution must be taken to carefully consider the indications, risks, and benefits of corticosteroids when deciding on their use.