A chart review was conducted of all bariatric surgical patients treated by one of us (A.P.C.) who received an initial surgical evaluation between January 14, 1992, and November 20, 2001. The only inclusion criterion was that the patient had undergone a bariatric surgical procedure; the only exclusion criterion was the occurrence of more than one bariatric procedure (ie, a vertical banded gastroplasty [VBG] later converted to an RGB). The charts were kept by the surgeon and contained records pertaining to preoperative evaluations, surgical procedure and hospital care, and follow-up monitoring at the surgeon's office. The data collected were weight, height, sex, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertension medications, and the dates of initial evaluation, surgery, and follow-up visits. Weight and height data were used to calculate the BMI, which was used as the measure of body mass because it is most closely associated with body fat content and the development of comorbid conditions (eg, hypertension and diabetes).13 For reference, degree of obesity was categorized by BMI as follows: normal (healthy) weight, 18.5 to 24.9; overweight, 25.0 to 29.9; obesity (stage 1), 30.0 to 34.9; obesity (stage 2), 35.0 to 39.9; and extreme obesity, 40.0 or greater.13 All body weight measurements were made in the surgeon's office by a nurse, using a 450-kg-capacity scale (DIGI, Rice Lake, Wis, or Mettler Toledo, Columbus, Ohio); blood pressure measurements were made a single time at each visit, in the sitting position, using the left arm and a sphygmomanometer and cuff appropriate for the arm circumference. Phase I and phase V Korotkoff sounds were used to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Patients sat quietly in the waiting room for 15 to 20 minutes and then in a treatment room for 5 to 10 minutes before blood pressure was measured. At each visit, patients were asked by a nurse to report all medications currently in use; this information was recorded in the medical chart and was used to assess antihypertensive medication history. All data were collected on data sheets that were identified by number only (assigned by an honest broker). The study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa, as exempt from informed consent.