0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Special Feature |

Image of the Month—Answer FREE

[+] Author Affiliations

Section Editor: S. Rozycki Grace, MD

More Author Information
Arch Surg. 2006;141(10):1044. doi:10.1001/archsurg.141.10.1043-b.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the designation for the specific c-kit–expressing and Kit signal–driven mesenchymal tumors. They account for approximately 0.1% to 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms and are the most common mesenchymal tumors that arise in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract.1Most individuals are older than 50 years at the time of presentation and rarely younger than 40 years. Primary colonic GISTs are much less common than gastric (60%-70%), small intestinal (25%-35%), and anorectal (<5%) and most commonly involve the muscularis propria of the intestinal wall with propensity for exophytic growth.2Therefore, the most common presentation is that of a mass arising from the intestinal wall and projecting into the abdominal cavity. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be histologically identified as highly cellular spindle cell or epithelioid mesenchymal tumors, and morphology is somewhat site dependent. However, common to all these tumors is expression of Kit (CD117 antigen), which is a major diagnostic criterion.1Although the prediction of malignancy in this tumor group is notoriously difficult, tumors that have mitotic activity counts exceeding 5 per 50 high-power field or those larger than 5 cm have a high frequency of intra-abdominal recurrence and liver metastasis, whereas those that fall short of these categories have uncertain malignant potential or intermediate risk for metastasis or recurrence.2The majority of colonic GISTs are malignant. Genetic markers, including Kitmutation status, which has been detected in at least 60% to 70% of cases, may be useful in more accurately identifying tumors with malignant potential.1

The conventional therapy for patients with primary GISTs has been complete surgical resection.3Usually, only segmental resection of the underlying organ is required because GISTs tend to protrude from the tissue of origin and displace surrounding structures without invasion. Lymphadenectomy is not performed routinely in patients with GIST because lymph node metastases are rare. Meticulous surgical technique is necessary to avoid intraoperative tumor rupture, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Currently, there is widespread scientific and clinical interest in GIST because its principal pathogenetic defect has been identified and a specific molecular inhibitor of GIST (STI-571, imatinib mesylate) has been developed.4The exact role of STI-571 in primary GIST has not yet been established; in particular, high-risk patients with tumors larger than 10 cm could benefit from STI-571 as neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment with conventional therapy.5

Correspondence:Alfredo A. santillan, MD, MPH, 4800 Alberta Ave, El Paso, TX 79905 (alfredo.santillan@ttuhsc.edu).

Accepted for Publication:November 1, 2005.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: santillan, Agullo, and Landeros. Acquisition of data: santillan, Agullo, and Landeros. Drafting of the manuscript: santillan. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: santillan, Agullo, and Landeros. Administrative, technical, and material support: santillan, Agullo, and Landeros. Study supervision: santillan, Agullo, and Landeros.

Shinomura  YKinoshita  KTsutsui  SHirota  S Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Gastroenterol 2005;40775- 780
PubMed Link to Article
DeMatteo  RPLewis  JJLeung  D  et al.  Two hundred gastrointestinal stromal tumors: recurrence patterns and prognostic factors for survival. Ann Surg 2000;23151- 58
PubMed Link to Article
Kosmadakis  NVisvardis  EEKartsaklis  P  et al.  The role of surgery in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in the era of imatinib mesylate effectiveness. Surg Oncol 2005;1475- 84
PubMed Link to Article
Joensuu  HRoberts  PJSarlomo-Rikala  M  et al.  Effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 in a patient with a metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor. N Engl J Med 2001;3441052- 1056
PubMed Link to Article
sanborn  REBlanke  CD Gastrointestinal stromal tumors and the evolution of targeted therapy. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2005;3647- 657
PubMed

Figures

Tables

References

Shinomura  YKinoshita  KTsutsui  SHirota  S Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Gastroenterol 2005;40775- 780
PubMed Link to Article
DeMatteo  RPLewis  JJLeung  D  et al.  Two hundred gastrointestinal stromal tumors: recurrence patterns and prognostic factors for survival. Ann Surg 2000;23151- 58
PubMed Link to Article
Kosmadakis  NVisvardis  EEKartsaklis  P  et al.  The role of surgery in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in the era of imatinib mesylate effectiveness. Surg Oncol 2005;1475- 84
PubMed Link to Article
Joensuu  HRoberts  PJSarlomo-Rikala  M  et al.  Effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 in a patient with a metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor. N Engl J Med 2001;3441052- 1056
PubMed Link to Article
sanborn  REBlanke  CD Gastrointestinal stromal tumors and the evolution of targeted therapy. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2005;3647- 657
PubMed

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles