Replacing a 24-hour regimen with a 1-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for elective surgery would not increase rates of surgical site infection and would decrease costs.
Design and Setting
Before-after trial in a tertiary, private general hospital in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
Surgery was performed on 6140 consecutive patients from February 2002 through October 2002 (period 1) and 6159 consecutive patients from December 2002 through August 2003 (period 2). Studied surgeries included orthopedic, gastrointestinal, urology, vascular, lung, head and neck, heart, gynecologic, oncology, colon, neurologic, and pediatric surgeries. The study excluded patients with infection at the time of surgery.
Decreasing the 24-hour prophylactic antibiotic regimen to 1-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.
Main Outcome Measures
Surgical site infections in both periods measured by in-hospital surveillance and postdischarge surveillance; compliance with 1-dose prophylaxis; and costs with cephazolin.
We followed up 12 299 patients during their hospital stay; postdischarge surveillance increased significantly from 2717 patients (44%) to 3066 patients (50%, P<.001). One-dose prophylaxis was correctly followed in 6123 patients (99% compliance).The rate of surgical site infection did not change in either period (2% and 2.1% respectively, P = .67). The number of cephazolin vials purchased monthly decreased from 1259 to 467 with a corresponding monthly savings of $1980.
One-dose antibiotic prophylaxis did not lead to an increase in rates of surgical site infection and brought a monthly savings of $1980 considering cephazolin alone. High compliance to 1-dose prophylaxis was achieved through an educational intervention encouraged by the hospital director and administrative measures that reduced access to extra doses.