Current health care in Mongolia is influenced by the country's history and geography. Documents from the 11th and 12th centuries reveal that Mongolian caregivers were knowledgeable about the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of many diseases, including plague, measles, chickenpox, and smallpox. Until the end of the 19th century, medical services were in the hands of Buddhist monks who practiced traditional medicine that began a millennium before when nomadic tribes first formed their own states and Mongolia was at the intersection of great trading routes. In addition to Mongolian traditional medicine, these early healers were acquainted with Chinese, Tibetan, and Indian remedies. One of their strengths was the treatment of wounds and trauma. Historical evidence suggests that they were familiar with wound infection, fractures, and dislocations. Brain concussion was recognized and treated by massage.