From the inception of the United States, civilian surgeons have been involved in advising the military and providing surgical care for the wounded soldier. John Jones, professor of surgery at King's College in New York City, is the most notable of those who served during the Revolutionary War. Others included William Shippen, James Tilton, Samuel Bard, William Baynham, Thomas Bond, John Bard, James Lloyd, and John Warren. Many of these surgeons had studied under William and John Hunter in London, England. One of the remarkable contributions of civilian medicine to military surgery was during the Civil War by the US Sanitary Commission. Although initially criticized, by the end of the war it was recognized as contributing significantly to decreased mortality of the wounded. Another significant contribution during the Civil War was accomplished by Surgeon General William Hammond after Gettysburg. In cooperation with state governors, he established a reserve medical corps, and the medical competence had to be vouched for by local authorities. This proved to be effective during the Battle of the Wilderness. The reserve physicians primarily changed dressings,
treated sick soldiers, and helped run the field hospital; amputations and other complicated surgical procedures were left to regular army surgeons who were thought to have greater skills with the knife.
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Surgery editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 9
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.