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Review Article |

Total vs Partial Fundoplication in the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease:  A Meta-analysis FREE

Oswald Varin, MD; Berit Velstra, MD; Stijn De Sutter, MD; Wim Ceelen, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium (Drs Varin, De Sutter, and Ceelen); Department of Surgery, Spaarne Ziekenhuis, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands (Dr Velstra).


Arch Surg. 2009;144(3):273-278. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2009.10.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective  To perform a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing partial fundoplication (PF) with total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) for gastroesophageal reflux disease in terms of morbidity, efficacy, and long-term symptomatology.

Data Sources  A structured Medline search for published studies.

Study Selection  The available literature from 1975 until June 2007 was searched using the Medical Subject Headings of the National Library of Medicine term fundoplication and the free-text terms fundoplication, surgery, and reflux. Data were analyzed using Review Manager software (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England).

Data Extraction  Eleven trials were identified comparing TF with PF in 991 patients.

Data Synthesis  Total fundoplication resulted in a significantly higher incidence of postoperative dysphagia (odds ratio [OR], 1.82-3.93; P < .001), bloating (OR, 1.07-2.56; P = .02), and flatulence (OR, 1.66-3.96; P < .001). No significant differences were noted in the incidence of esophagitis (OR, 0.72-2.7; P = .33), heartburn (OR, 0.48-1.52; P = .58), or persisting acid reflux (OR, 0.77-1.79; P = .45). The reoperation rate was significantly higher after TF compared with PF (OR, 1.13-3.95; P = .02). No significant differences were present in the proportion of patients experiencing a good or excellent long-term outcome (OR, 0.54-1.38; P = .53) or in the proportion of patients with a Visick I or II score (OR, 0.62-1.59; P = .99).

Conclusions  Partial fundoplication is a safe and effective alternative to TF, resulting in significantly fewer reoperations and a better functional outcome. The poor quality of the included trials warrants caution in the interpretation of the results of this meta-analysis.

Figures in this Article

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage caused by abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. It was estimated that 44% of adults in the United States experience at least 1 episode of heartburn per month.1 Chronic GERD is an established risk factor for the development of Barrett metaplasia, estimated to develop in 5% to 15% of patients with acid reflux.2

Surgery has gained an established role in the management of complicated GERD since the incidental discovery by Nissen of the antireflux effect created by a fundoplication. Compared with medical therapy, fundoplication is more effective in overall symptom control.3,4 Surgery does not, however, seem to affect the risk of developing Barrett metaplasia or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.5

Recently, recognition of specific long-term morbidity and failure rates associated with surgery has caused a decline in the use of antireflux procedures.6 Creation of a 360° fundoplication has been shown to induce dysphagia, inability to belch or vomit, and flatulence in many patients.7 It is uncertain whether the creation of a partial fundoplication alters the risk of postoperative functional complaints.8

The aim of the present study was to compare total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) with partial fundoplication (PF) in terms of safety, efficacy, and adverse effects using a formal meta-analysis.

We performed a systematic search of the literature using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (science citation index, current contents), and PubMed from 1975 until June 2007 using the Medical Subject Headings of the National Library of Medicine term fundoplication and the free-text terms fundoplication, surgery, and reflux (Figure 1). Eleven studies randomized patients to either TF or PF. Studies that did not compare TF with PF and studies comparing fundoplication with Hill gastropexy were excluded. The following outcome parameters were analyzed: postoperative morbidity, mortality, incidence of symptomatic adverse events (dysphagia, bloating, flatulence, esophagitis, heartburn), reoperation rate, recurrence rate, and Visick score. Data were extracted from the selected studies and entered into the Review Manager software (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England). Summary statistics were calculated using the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). The methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed using the method of Jadad.9 Heterogeneity was tested using the χ2 statistic and assumed to be present when P < .1.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

Quorum diagram showing study methodology. RCT indicates randomized controlled trial.

Graphic Jump Location

Eleven prospective randomized trials were identified comparing TF with PF, including a total of 991 patients. Two studies comparing TF with Hill gastropexy were left out of the analysis.10,11 The characteristics of the studies are detailed in the Table. Overall, the methodological quality of the identified trials was low, with 7 of the 11 trials having a Jadad score of 3 or less. All trials recruited a small number of patients, while no formal primary endpoint identification, sample size calculation, or power calculation was reported in any of the identified trials.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Details of Prospective Randomized Trials Comparing TF With PF in the Treatment of Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Postoperative mortality was not present in any of the included trials. No significant differences were observed in postoperative morbidity (Figure 2). The functional outcome parameters are detailed in Figure 3. Compared with PF, TF resulted in a significantly higher incidence of postoperative dysphagia (OR, 1.82-3.93; P < .001), bloating (OR, 1.07-2.56; P = .02), and flatulence (OR, 1.66-3.96; P < .001). Figure 4 highlights the postoperative parameters related to the efficacy of surgery. No significant differences were noted between PF and TF in the incidence of esophagitis (OR, 0.72-2.7; P = .33), heartburn (OR, 0.48-1.52; P = .58), or persisting acid reflux (OR, 0.77-1.79; P = .45). There was, however, significant heterogeneity associated with the pooled analysis of the incidence of persistent reflux. Long-term outcome parameters are given in Figure 5. The reoperation rate was significantly higher after TF compared with PF (OR, 1.13-3.95; P = .02). However, significant heterogeneity was identified between trials. No significant differences were present in the proportion of patients experiencing a good or excellent long-term outcome (OR, 0.54-1.38; P = .53) or in the proportion of patients with a Visick I or II score (OR, 0.62-1.59; P = .99).

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

Analysis of morbidity after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 3.

Analysis of dysphagia (A), bloating (B), and flatulence (C) after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 4.

Analysis of esophagitis (A), heartburn (B), and acid reflux (C) after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 5.

Analysis of reoperation rate (A), outcome (B), and Visick I and II score (C) after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location

Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its long-term complications represent an important health care burden in the developed world, and there is evidence that the prevalence of GERD has increased during the past 2 decades.26 The mainstay of therapy consists of lifestyle and dietary modification, acid suppression therapy, and, in selected patients, surgery. Recently, a variety of endoscopic antireflux procedures have been introduced in clinical practice. Owing to questions regarding the safety, efficacy, and durability of endoscopic procedures, their routine use is at present not recommended.27 The exact place of surgery in the management of GERD remains a matter of debate. Accepted indications for surgery include anatomic abnormalities such as a large hiatus hernia, persistent regurgitation despite adequate medical therapy, and incomplete response to medical therapy in patients with proven reflux.28 Recent evidence suggests that, compared with medical therapy, surgery is associated with a higher probability of regression of Barrett's metaplasia, although the risk of malignant change does not seem to differ.29

Fundoplication procedures are nowadays usually performed using a minimally invasive approach. The evidence comparing open with laparoscopic fundoplication is equivocal. Some randomized comparisons have found the laparoscopic approach to be beneficial in terms of hospital stay, overall cost, and wound morbidity.30 Others were unable to demonstrate any difference in outcome, and one prospective trial was terminated early when a significantly higher complication rate in the laparoscopic group was detected at interim analysis.3133 Most authors agree, however, that the subjective and symptomatic outcome is similar following open or laparoscopic fundoplication.

One of the drawbacks of surgery is the risk of long-term adverse functional effects due to the imposed mechanical obstruction of the lower esophagus.34 Partial fundoplication techniques have been proposed to prevent postoperative dysphagia and retain the ability to belch. The current meta-analysis confirms that dysphagia, bloating, and flatulence are all significantly less common after PF. It should be noted, however, that the exact length of the Nissen wrap in the analyzed trials could not be identified. It is possible that a short (1 cm) gastric wrap, as currently recommended,35 results in less postoperative dysphagia. Moreover, it seems likely that division vs preservation of the short gastric vessels alters functional outcome.36 The higher incidence of dysphagia following TF coexisted with a significantly higher reoperation rate, although reoperation may be related to other variables such as presence of a hiatal hernia and closure thereof. Despite the creation of a theoretically less effective mechanical barrier, PF was not associated with lower efficacy in terms of acid reflux control. More specifically, the incidence of esophagitis, heartburn, and reflux episodes was comparable. Taken together, the results of the present meta-analysis suggest that PF is the procedure of choice in patients with GERD selected for surgery. Several limitations should, however, be taken into account. First, the general methodological quality of the included trials is low owing to small patient numbers, inadequate trial design or methodology, lack of standardization, and lack of objective outcome assessment. Second, the validity of several of the reported pooled analyses is hampered by statistically significant heterogeneity related to small sample sizes. Therefore, the individual decision as to what type of antireflux barrier to create should be tailored according to the available (limited) evidence, the experience of the operator, and to specific patient-related variables such as preexisting dysphagia, extent of acid reflux, hiatal anatomy, and manometry data. Preoperative manometry could be helpful in the surgical decision-making process.37 Large scale, multicenter, randomized trials including objective outcome assessment will be required to definitely establish the value of partial vs total fundoplication.

Correspondence: Oswald Varin, MD, Department of Surgery, University Hospital 2K12 IC, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium (oswald.varin@ugent.be).

Accepted for Publication: February 13, 2008.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Varin, Velstra, and Ceelen. Acquisition of data: De Sutter. Drafting of the manuscript: Varin, Velstra, De Sutter, and Ceelen. Statistical analysis: Ceelen. Administrative, technical, and material support: Velstra and De Sutter. Study supervision: Varin.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Shaheen  NRansohoff  DF Gastroesophageal reflux, Barrett esophagus, and esophageal cancer: scientific review. JAMA 2002;287 (15) 1972- 1981
PubMed Link to Article
Shaheen  NJ Advances in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology 2005;128 (6) 1554- 1566
PubMed Link to Article
Spechler  SJThe Department of Veterans Affairs Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Study Group, Comparison of medical and surgical therapy for complicated gastroesophageal reflux disease in veterans. N Engl J Med 1992;326 (12) 786- 792
PubMed Link to Article
Lundell  LMiettinen  PMyrvold  HE  et al. Nordic GORD Study Group, Seven-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing proton-pump inhibition with surgical therapy for reflux oesophagitis. Br J Surg 2007;94 (2) 198- 203
PubMed Link to Article
Spechler  SJLee  EAhnen  D  et al.  Long-term outcome of medical and surgical therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;285 (18) 2331- 2338
PubMed Link to Article
Finks  JFWei  YLBirkmeyer  JD The rise and fall of antireflux surgery in the United States. Surg Endosc 2006;20 (11) 1698- 1701
Link to Article
Dominitz  JADire  CABillingsley  KGTodd-Stenberg  JA Complications and antireflux medication use after antireflux surgery. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;4 (3) 299- 305
PubMed Link to Article
Wills  VLHunt  DR Dysphagia after antireflux surgery. Br J Surg 2001;88 (4) 486- 499
PubMed Link to Article
Jadad  ARMoore  RACarroll  D  et al.  Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996;17 (1) 1- 12
PubMed Link to Article
Demeester  TRJohnson  LFKent  AH Evaluation of current operations for prevention of gastroesophageal reflux. Ann Surg 1974;180 (4) 511- 525
PubMed Link to Article
Csendes  ABurdiles  PKorn  OBraghetto  IHuertas  CRojas  J Late results of a randomized clinical trial comparing total fundoplication versus calibration of the cardia with posterior gastropexy. Br J Surg 2000;87 (3) 289- 297
PubMed Link to Article
Segol  PHay  JMPottier  D Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux: Nissen fundoplication, Toupet, or Lortat-Jacob: a multicenter randomized trial [in French]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1989;13 (11) 873- 879
PubMed
Thor  KBASilander  TA Long-term randomized prospective trial of the Nissen procedure versus a modified Toupet technique. Ann Surg 1989;210 (6) 719- 724
PubMed Link to Article
Lundell  LAbrahamsson  HRuth  MSandberg  NOlbe  LC Lower esophageal sphincter characteristics and esophageal acid exposure following partial or 360-degrees fundoplication: results of a prospective, randomized, clinical-study. World J Surg 1991;15 (1) 115- 121
PubMed Link to Article
Lundell  LAbrahamsson  HRuth  MRydberg  LLonroth  HOlbe  L Long-term results of a prospective randomized comparison of total fundic wrap (Nissen-Rossetti) or semifundoplication (Toupet) for gastro-oesophageal reflux. Br J Surg 1996;83 (6) 830- 835
PubMed Link to Article
Hagedorn  CLonroth  HRydberg  LRuth  MLundell  L Long-term efficacy of total (Nissen-Rossetti) and posterior partial (Toupet) fundoplication: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Gastrointest Surg 2002;6 (4) 540- 545
PubMed Link to Article
Walker  SJHolt  SSanderson  CJStoddard  CJ Comparison of Nissen total and Lind partial transabdominal fundoplication in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux. Br J Surg 1992;79 (5) 410- 414
PubMed Link to Article
Laws  HLClements  RHSwillie  CM A randomized, prospective comparison of the Nissen fundoplication versus the Toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ann Surg 1997;225 (6) 647- 653
PubMed Link to Article
Watson  DIJamieson  GGPike  GKDavies  NRichardson  MDevitt  PG Prospective randomized double-blind trial between laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and anterior partial fundoplication. Br J Surg 1999;86 (1) 123- 130
PubMed Link to Article
Fibbe  CLayer  PKeller  JStrate  UEmmermann  AZornig  C Esophageal motility in reflux disease before and after fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, clinical, and manometric study. Gastroenterology 2001;121 (1) 5- 14
PubMed Link to Article
Zornig  CStrate  UFibbe  CEmmermann  ALayer  P Nissen vs Toupet laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective randomized study of 200 patients with and without preoperative esophageal motility disorders. Surg Endosc 2002;16 (5) 758- 766
PubMed Link to Article
Chrysos  ETsiaoussis  JZoras  OJ  et al.  Laparoscopic surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with impaired esophageal peristalsis: total or partial fundoplication? J Am Coll Surg 2003;197 (1) 8- 15
PubMed Link to Article
Watson  DIJamieson  GGLally  C  et al. International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus–Australasian Section, Multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of laparoscopic Nissen vs anterior 90 degrees partial fundoplication. Arch Surg 2004;139 (11) 1160- 1167
PubMed Link to Article
Baigrie  RJCullis  SNRNdhluni  AJCariem  A Randomized double-blind trial of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication versus anterior partial fundoplication. Br J Surg 2005;92 (7) 819- 823
PubMed Link to Article
Spence  GMWatson  DIJamiesion  GGLally  CJDevitt  PG Single center prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic Nissen versus anterior 90 degrees fundoplication. J Gastrointest Surg 2006;10 (5) 698- 705
PubMed Link to Article
El-Serag  HB Time trends of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5 (1) 17- 26
PubMed Link to Article
Shaheen  NJ The rise and fall (and rise?) of endoscopic anti-reflux procedures. Gastroenterology 2006;131 (3) 952- 954
PubMed Link to Article
Vakil  N Review article: the role of surgery in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007;25 (12) 1365- 1372
PubMed Link to Article
Chang  EYMorris  CDSeltman  AK  et al.  The effect of antireflux surgery on esophageal carcinogenesis in patients with Barrett esophagus: a systematic review. Ann Surg 2007;246 (1) 11- 21
PubMed Link to Article
Salminen  PTPHiekkanen  HIRantala  APTOvaska  JT Comparison of long-term outcome of laparoscopic and conventional Nissen fundoplication: a prospective randomized study with an 11-year follow-up. Ann Surg 2007;246 (2) 201- 206
PubMed Link to Article
Chrysos  ETsiaoussis  JAthanasakis  EZoras  OVassilakis  JSXynos  E Laparoscopic vs open approach for Nissen fundoplication: a comparative study. Surg Endosc 2002;16 (12) 1679- 1684
PubMed Link to Article
Ackroyd  RWatson  DIMajeed  AWTroy  GTreacy  PJStoddard  CJ Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Br J Surg 2004;91 (8) 975- 982
PubMed Link to Article
Bais  JEBartelsman  JBonjer  HJ  et al. The Netherlands Antireflux Surgery Study Group, Laparoscopic or conventional Nissen fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2000;355 (9199) 170- 174
PubMed Link to Article
Lundell  L Complications after anti-reflux surgery. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004;18 (5) 935- 945
PubMed Link to Article
Bais  JEWBWijnhoven  BPMasclee  AAMGooszen  HG Analysis and surgical treatment of persistent dysphagia after Nissen fundoplication. Br J Surg 2001;88 (4) 569- 576
Link to Article
Gad El-Hak  NZied  MAAboelenen  A  et al.  Short gastric vessels division in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Hepatogastroenterology 2005;52 (66) 1742- 1747
PubMed
Kala  ZDolina  JKysela  P  et al.  Esophageal sphincter pressure during laparoscopic antireflux surgery with a mechanical calibration: early results. Hepatogastroenterology 2006;53 (71) 710- 714
PubMed

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

Quorum diagram showing study methodology. RCT indicates randomized controlled trial.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

Analysis of morbidity after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 3.

Analysis of dysphagia (A), bloating (B), and flatulence (C) after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 4.

Analysis of esophagitis (A), heartburn (B), and acid reflux (C) after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 5.

Analysis of reoperation rate (A), outcome (B), and Visick I and II score (C) after total (Nissen) fundoplication (TF) or partial fundoplication (PF). Odds ratios (ORs) are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Details of Prospective Randomized Trials Comparing TF With PF in the Treatment of Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

References

Shaheen  NRansohoff  DF Gastroesophageal reflux, Barrett esophagus, and esophageal cancer: scientific review. JAMA 2002;287 (15) 1972- 1981
PubMed Link to Article
Shaheen  NJ Advances in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology 2005;128 (6) 1554- 1566
PubMed Link to Article
Spechler  SJThe Department of Veterans Affairs Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Study Group, Comparison of medical and surgical therapy for complicated gastroesophageal reflux disease in veterans. N Engl J Med 1992;326 (12) 786- 792
PubMed Link to Article
Lundell  LMiettinen  PMyrvold  HE  et al. Nordic GORD Study Group, Seven-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing proton-pump inhibition with surgical therapy for reflux oesophagitis. Br J Surg 2007;94 (2) 198- 203
PubMed Link to Article
Spechler  SJLee  EAhnen  D  et al.  Long-term outcome of medical and surgical therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;285 (18) 2331- 2338
PubMed Link to Article
Finks  JFWei  YLBirkmeyer  JD The rise and fall of antireflux surgery in the United States. Surg Endosc 2006;20 (11) 1698- 1701
Link to Article
Dominitz  JADire  CABillingsley  KGTodd-Stenberg  JA Complications and antireflux medication use after antireflux surgery. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;4 (3) 299- 305
PubMed Link to Article
Wills  VLHunt  DR Dysphagia after antireflux surgery. Br J Surg 2001;88 (4) 486- 499
PubMed Link to Article
Jadad  ARMoore  RACarroll  D  et al.  Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996;17 (1) 1- 12
PubMed Link to Article
Demeester  TRJohnson  LFKent  AH Evaluation of current operations for prevention of gastroesophageal reflux. Ann Surg 1974;180 (4) 511- 525
PubMed Link to Article
Csendes  ABurdiles  PKorn  OBraghetto  IHuertas  CRojas  J Late results of a randomized clinical trial comparing total fundoplication versus calibration of the cardia with posterior gastropexy. Br J Surg 2000;87 (3) 289- 297
PubMed Link to Article
Segol  PHay  JMPottier  D Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux: Nissen fundoplication, Toupet, or Lortat-Jacob: a multicenter randomized trial [in French]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1989;13 (11) 873- 879
PubMed
Thor  KBASilander  TA Long-term randomized prospective trial of the Nissen procedure versus a modified Toupet technique. Ann Surg 1989;210 (6) 719- 724
PubMed Link to Article
Lundell  LAbrahamsson  HRuth  MSandberg  NOlbe  LC Lower esophageal sphincter characteristics and esophageal acid exposure following partial or 360-degrees fundoplication: results of a prospective, randomized, clinical-study. World J Surg 1991;15 (1) 115- 121
PubMed Link to Article
Lundell  LAbrahamsson  HRuth  MRydberg  LLonroth  HOlbe  L Long-term results of a prospective randomized comparison of total fundic wrap (Nissen-Rossetti) or semifundoplication (Toupet) for gastro-oesophageal reflux. Br J Surg 1996;83 (6) 830- 835
PubMed Link to Article
Hagedorn  CLonroth  HRydberg  LRuth  MLundell  L Long-term efficacy of total (Nissen-Rossetti) and posterior partial (Toupet) fundoplication: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Gastrointest Surg 2002;6 (4) 540- 545
PubMed Link to Article
Walker  SJHolt  SSanderson  CJStoddard  CJ Comparison of Nissen total and Lind partial transabdominal fundoplication in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux. Br J Surg 1992;79 (5) 410- 414
PubMed Link to Article
Laws  HLClements  RHSwillie  CM A randomized, prospective comparison of the Nissen fundoplication versus the Toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ann Surg 1997;225 (6) 647- 653
PubMed Link to Article
Watson  DIJamieson  GGPike  GKDavies  NRichardson  MDevitt  PG Prospective randomized double-blind trial between laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and anterior partial fundoplication. Br J Surg 1999;86 (1) 123- 130
PubMed Link to Article
Fibbe  CLayer  PKeller  JStrate  UEmmermann  AZornig  C Esophageal motility in reflux disease before and after fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, clinical, and manometric study. Gastroenterology 2001;121 (1) 5- 14
PubMed Link to Article
Zornig  CStrate  UFibbe  CEmmermann  ALayer  P Nissen vs Toupet laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective randomized study of 200 patients with and without preoperative esophageal motility disorders. Surg Endosc 2002;16 (5) 758- 766
PubMed Link to Article
Chrysos  ETsiaoussis  JZoras  OJ  et al.  Laparoscopic surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with impaired esophageal peristalsis: total or partial fundoplication? J Am Coll Surg 2003;197 (1) 8- 15
PubMed Link to Article
Watson  DIJamieson  GGLally  C  et al. International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus–Australasian Section, Multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of laparoscopic Nissen vs anterior 90 degrees partial fundoplication. Arch Surg 2004;139 (11) 1160- 1167
PubMed Link to Article
Baigrie  RJCullis  SNRNdhluni  AJCariem  A Randomized double-blind trial of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication versus anterior partial fundoplication. Br J Surg 2005;92 (7) 819- 823
PubMed Link to Article
Spence  GMWatson  DIJamiesion  GGLally  CJDevitt  PG Single center prospective randomized trial of laparoscopic Nissen versus anterior 90 degrees fundoplication. J Gastrointest Surg 2006;10 (5) 698- 705
PubMed Link to Article
El-Serag  HB Time trends of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5 (1) 17- 26
PubMed Link to Article
Shaheen  NJ The rise and fall (and rise?) of endoscopic anti-reflux procedures. Gastroenterology 2006;131 (3) 952- 954
PubMed Link to Article
Vakil  N Review article: the role of surgery in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007;25 (12) 1365- 1372
PubMed Link to Article
Chang  EYMorris  CDSeltman  AK  et al.  The effect of antireflux surgery on esophageal carcinogenesis in patients with Barrett esophagus: a systematic review. Ann Surg 2007;246 (1) 11- 21
PubMed Link to Article
Salminen  PTPHiekkanen  HIRantala  APTOvaska  JT Comparison of long-term outcome of laparoscopic and conventional Nissen fundoplication: a prospective randomized study with an 11-year follow-up. Ann Surg 2007;246 (2) 201- 206
PubMed Link to Article
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