The SCFAs are a group of gastrointestinal-specific fuels that are a product of anaerobic bacterial metabolism of dietary fiber and resistant carbohydrate. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are produced intraluminally in an almost constant molar ratio of 60:25:15 and account for approximately 85% of formed SCFAs.3 Among their various properties, SCFAs stimulate sodium and water absorption in the colon, are quickly absorbed by intestinal mucosa, are high in caloric content, are readily metabolized by intestinal epithelium and liver, and are trophic to the intestinal mucosa.4 In rats, the addition of SCFAs to PN has been shown to prevent PN-associated mucosal atrophy5 and to enhance structural markers of adaptation to small-bowel resection.6,7 Confirming work by Koruda et al,6 a study by Tappenden et al8 revealed that systemic SCFAs increase nutrient uptake and messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the basolateral hexose transporter glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) following intestinal resection in rats. These findings are unique because they indicate that a specific nutrient (ie, SCFA) may modulate the gene expression and transport capacity of other nutrients (ie, glucose, galactose, and fructose). Furthermore, the observed increase in nutrient uptake indicates that systemic nutrients (ie, those provided to the basolateral side of the enterocyte, as in total PN) can increase the transport of luminal substrates (via brush border transporters) provided by oral or enteral nutrition. The concept that SCFAs can be provided intravenously to prepare the intestinal brush border for effective digestion and absorption of enteral nutrients is particularly attractive for patients with intestinal failure.