Burnout is a pathologic reaction in response to long-term work-related stress. The aim of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess the prevalence and degree of burnout among surgical residents and surgeons in Switzerland and, second, to identify predictors of burnout in the surgical community. Four hundred five of 618 anonymous questionnaires (65.5%) were returned. Among respondents, 3.7% and 35.1% showed high and moderate degrees of burnout, respectively. Respondents with high and moderate degrees of burnout had higher summary scores of perceived stress (P < .001). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the strongest predictors of burnout were poor interaction with nurses, disturbances due to telephone consultations, and high overall workload. To reduce burnout, new work models should be sought, in addition to decreasing work intensity and workload rather than restricting work hours alone.