We also performed a matched comparison of the 17 laparoscopic resections for HCC for curative intent (10 hand-assisted; 7 pure laparoscopic) with 20 open liver resections for HCC during the same period (Table 4). There were no significant differences in sex, age, percentage of patients with cirrhosis, type of resection, concurrent resection, or concurrent procedure. The laparoscopic liver resection group for HCC had a statistically significant smaller body mass index compared with the open liver resection group for HCC, but the clinical significance is uncertain. There were no statistical differences between the tumor size and percentage of negative margins between the laparoscopic or open groups; however, open liver resection for HCC was associated with significantly closer negative margins than the laparoscopic group (0.69 cm vs 1.12 cm; P = .04). When comparing laparoscopic and open liver resection for HCC, there were no statistically significant differences in operative time, blood loss, or transfusion rate. As an indication of pain medication requirement, patients who underwent open liver resection for HCC had a significantly higher epidural requirement, while no patients who underwent laparoscopic resection for HCC required an epidural for pain control. No bile leak was reported in either treatment group and the complication rates were not significantly different. The length of stay was significantly shorter for patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection for HCC compared with patients who underwent open liver resection (4.1 days vs 5.7 days; P = .002). From an oncological standpoint, the actual disease-free survival was significantly better for the laparoscopic liver resection group compared with the open liver resection group at 1, 2, and 3 years (laparoscopic: 88%, 88%, and 82% vs open: 60%, 50%, and 50%; P = .007) (Table 4). This may be associated with the previously mentioned significantly closer margin seen with open liver resection for HCC compared with the laparoscopic group; however, there was no difference in actual overall survival between the 2 groups (laparoscopic: 75%, 67%, and 52% vs open: 66% 66%, and 44%; P = .09).