Preperitoneal (properitoneal) space is the space between the peritoneum and transversalis fascia. Bogros (1786-1825) described a triangular space in the iliac region between the iliac fascia, transversalis fascia, and parietal peritoneum. In the modern concept, this space lies between the peritoneum and posterior lamina of the transversalis fascia. In 1858, Retzius described the homonymous space, situated anterior and lateral to the urinary bladder (prevesical space). In 1975, Fowler reported that the preperitoneal fascia of the groin is distinct from the transversalis fascia. Preperitoneal herniorrhaphy may be subdivided into 2 approaches: transperitoneal and inguinal. We present herein the evolution of approaches to the preperitoneal space from use of the transperitoneal (or posterior) to use of the anterior preperitoneal and posterior preperitoneal approaches. As anatomic knowledge has increased, the evolution of laparoscopic surgery has paralleled that of open procedures.
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Representation of the layers of the lower abdominal wall and the inguinal area. 1 indicates the external oblique fascia (fascia of Galaudet); 2, external oblique aponeurosis; 3, internal oblique muscle; 4, transversus abdominis muscle; 5, transversalis fascia anterior; 6, external spermatic fascia; 7, Cooper ligament; 8, pubic bone; 9, pectineus muscle; 10, transversalis fascia; 11, transversalis fascia posterior lamina; 12, vessels; 13, peritoneum; 14, space of Bogros; 15, preperitoneal fat; 16, transversus abdominis aponeurosis and anterior lamina of transversalis fascia; 17, femoral artery; and 18, femoral vein. Reprinted with permission from Skandalakis et al.2
Representation of the laparoscopic anatomy of the inguinal area demonstrating layers, fossae, and spaces. Reprinted with permission from Colborn and Skandalakis.3 Copyright 1993, Elsevier Inc.
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature
Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Surgery editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 7
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.