In regard to acquisition of skills to perform new procedures or to use emerging technologies, the surgeon needs to select an appropriate educational program using a disease-based approach rather than a technology-driven approach. A complete educational experience, including a period of structured preceptoring following a course, is necessary to ensure the safe transfer of the newly acquired skill to practice. Acquisition of skill should progress through the 3 stages of cognition, integration, and autonomous learning.21 Representative tasks within a technical skill should be identified and addressed through specific educational interventions. Expertise develops as a result of deliberate practice coupled with specific, timely feedback and from avoidance of automaticity through establishment of learning goals that exceed existing levels of performance.22 In addition, learner motivation, accurate self-assessment, reflection, metacognition, and minimum exposure to error-prone alternatives are all important in developing expertise. The knowledge and skills of surgeons should be verified and documented at the completion of the course and preceptorial experience.