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Arch Surg. 1923;7(2):332-346. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1923.01120020098007.
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The development of acute symptoms of intestinal obstruction is usually the first warning of the existence of intra-abdominal hernias. Extensive or prolonged operation is contraindicated, and the saving of time is important. A better understanding of the location and differentiation of the various types will enable the surgeon to make a more rapid, intelligent and systematic exploration.

In my study of the development of the gastro-intestinal tract and abdominal fossae I have used Moynihan's monograph. It is essential that one should be familiar with the development of the gastro-intestinal tract, abdominal fossae and the diaphragm in order fully to understand intra-abdominal hernias.

LOCATION AND ORIGIN OF THE ABDOMINAL FOSSAE  The abdominal fossae may be divided into three groups: those formed around the duodenum, around the cecum and around the sigmoid.Waldeyer,1 in 1868, published an excellent work describing the anatomy of the retroperitoneal fossae. Various theories have been advanced


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