Some remarkable results were reported by an Italian surgeon, Morelli,1 in the treatment of war wounds of the lung and pleura by means of artificial pneumothorax. He asserts that he had a mortality of only 5 per cent, in penetrating gunshot injuries of the thorax, as compared with the 30 per cent, mortality of the English and American armies. It was with a view of determining whether his procedure could be applied with advantage after operations within the thorax that this study was undertaken.
Artificial pneumothorax is by no means a new procedure. As early as 1822, James Carson of Liverpool suggested its use and experimented with its effect on the circulation. In 1882 Forlanini introduced it in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. He later proposed its use for lung abscess, bronchiectasis, and finally for tuberculous pleural effusions. Experimental studies on dogs of the effect of pneumothorax on