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A REVIEW OF UROLOGIC SURGERY

ALBERT J. SCHOLL, M.D.; E. STARR JUDD, M.D.; LINWOOD D. KEYSER, M.D.; GORDON S. FOULDS, M.D.; JEAN VERBRUGGE, M.D.; ADOLPH A. KUTZMANN, M.D.
Arch Surg. 1928;16(3):789-806. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1928.01140030161007.
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KIDNEY 

Anomalies.  —Surraco1 reported a case of crossed ectopic kidney The right kidney was normal and in good position. The left kidney which is the one usually displaced, was crossed and partially fused with the lower pole of the right. Both kidneys had lost their normal shape; the pelves were on the anterior surface and the ureteropelvic junctures were lateral to the kidneys. The ureter to the left kidney crossed the median line at the level of the second sacral vertebra; this is important embryologically as it suggests the area in which the ureteral bud found its first obstacle in its ascending progression.[Ed. Note.—Ectopic kidneys of this type do not usually cause symptoms, but at times, owing to their bulk and situation, there is considerable pain. Caulk2 reported a case in which suspension and fixation of the kidney to the lumbar fascia partly relieved pelvic pain

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